Publishers' Representative Central/Eastern Europe


Dictionary compiled using materials provided by publishers


Refers to the ability to find and read content via an authenticated web- or cloud-based system.

Add file

A set of discovery records generated to match new titles available in a library’s consideration pool, and used to add those records to a library’s catalog and discovery tools.


An aggregator is any e-book partner who has developed its own platform, on which content from different publishers is available to its customers

APC ? Article Publication Charge

APC – Article Publication Charge -fee that covers publication costs. (Open Access)

Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI): The ability of a digital computer or computer-controlled robot to perform tasks commonly associated with intelligent beings (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2020)


Within a demand-driven acquisition (DDA) program, a purchase by the library of perpetual access to an e-book based on usage by a patron. Depending on how a library has configured its DDA program, an auto-purchase can occur after a set number of uses of a book or after a set number of short-term loans. When the generic term “purchase” is used in this document, it is referring to an auto-purchase.


Batch is a free invoice payment and data system developed by the Booksellers Association of the UK and Ireland to serve the book trade.
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Batch Returns is an easy-to-use system that has been developed specifically to streamline the returns process. More information and step by step instructions can be found on their website

Big data

Big data Extremely large data sets that may be analysed computationally to reveal patterns, trends, and associations, especially relating to human behaviour and interactions (Oxford, 2020)


BISAC Subject Codes List, is a standard used by many companies throughout the supply chain to categorize books based on topical content.
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Blended learning

Blended learning is an approach to education that combines online educational materials and opportunities for interaction online with traditional place-based classroom methods. It requires the physical presence of both teacher and student, with some elements of student control over time, place, path, or pace. (

Book Industry Communication (BIC)

BIC is the book industry's independent supply chain organisation, committed to improving the efficiency of the trade and library supply chains, reducing cost and automating processes.
BIC Subject Codes, the international subject classification standard uses the BIC system (Version 2.1) to classify titles.
To find out more about BIC and download Subject codes and the BIC Basic standards go to the BIC website

BPC ? Book Publication Charge

BPC – Book Publication Charge; fee that covers publication costs (Open Access)

Catalogue price

Published price from which volume and other discounts are deducted and to which handling, shipping, taxes, and other charges are added

CC-BY(-NC, ND) Creative Commons license

CC-BY(-NC, ND) – Creative Commons license; the copyright license with which authors give the publisher a non-exclusive license to publish the article. Example, see Brill Licenses.

Central index

The collection of pre-harvested and processed metadata and full text that comprises the searchable content of a WSD service. Central indexes typically include full text and citations from publishers; full text and metadata from open source collections; full text, abstracting, and indexing from aggregators and subscription databases; and machine-readable cataloging (MARC) from library catalogs; also called the base index, unified index, or foundation index. See Web service discovery.


The number of users allowed to access a unit of content at any one moment. Limited concurrency specifies the number of users allowed simultaneous access. Unlimited concurrency means there are no limits or restrictions on the number of simultaneous users.

Consideration pool (or discovery pool)

All of the books available for potential purchase within a library’s demand-driven acquisition (DDA) program.


A consortium is an association of two or more individuals, companies, organizations or governments (or any combination of these entities) with the objective of participating in a common activity or pooling their resources for achieving a common goal.
library consortium is a group of libraries who partner to coordinate activities, share resources, and combine expertise. The International Coalition of Library Consortia is an informal discussion group of such consortia. Library consortia offer significant advantages to increasingly strapped libraries. The sharing of resources, and collaboration on shared goals often enable libraries to deliver higher quality services than they would be able to deliver on their own.

Customized publication

A customized publication created by users, where users select course material through a dedicated platform, such as WIley Custom Select, and create a customized textbook. Material can be selected from the publisher’s library (at chapter level) or from personal material. Custom publications can be delivered in print and digital formats.

Delete file

A set of discovery records generated to match titles no longer available in a library’s consideration pool, and used to remove records from a library’s catalog and discovery tools.

Demand-Driven Acquisition (DDA)

Acquisition of library materials based on patron use at the point of need. See also patron-driven acquisition (PDA).

Desk copy

Desk copies are complimentary books sent to professors who have already adopted the book for a course but do not possess a personal copy.

Digital list price (DLP)

The list price of the e-book, equal to the print edition. The DLP is provided to Aggregators and Wholesalers as part of the e-book metadata

Digital object identifier (DOI)

DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet. The publisher assigns a DOI when your article is published and made available electronically.

All DOI numbers begin with a 10 and contain a prefix and a suffix separated by a slash. The prefix is a unique number of four or more digits assigned to organizations; the suffix is assigned by the publisher and was designed to be flexible with publisher identification standards.

The DOI system was created by the International DOI Foundation and was adopted as International Standard ISO 26324 in 2012.
Learn more at: 

Digital rights management (DRM)

DRM software is used to prevent unfair usage of e-books, such as copying and printing. DRM may limit the number of times a file may be read, what type and number of devices the file may be used on, and whether or not a full or partial copy can be made of the file


A reduction from the full or standard amount of a price or value.

Discovery layer

Software that provides a search interface (similar to how a web search engine works) to search across all library resources.

Discovery record

A machine-readable cataloging (MARC) record supplied to a library by a supplier/vendor to enable discovery of a title within the consideration pool.

Discovery service

The user interface and search system for discovering, displaying, and interacting with the content in library systems. The discovery services are licensed software products, like Summon, Primo, EBSCO’s EDS. See also Web Scale Discovery (WSD)


The ability to transfer a digital file from a web- or cloud-based service to a personal device

Drop shipping

Drop shipping is a supply chain management technique in which the retailer does not keep goods in stock but instead transfers customer orders and shipment details to either the manufacturer, another retailer, or a wholesaler, who then ships the goods directly to the customer. As in retail businesses, the majority of retailers make their profit on the difference between the wholesale and retail price, but some retailers earn an agreed percentage of the sales in commission, paid by the wholesaler to the retailer.


An e-book is an electronic version of a printed book with some added benefits. There are different formats on the market, some including interactive content and additional material not available in print format.
E-books are offered as e-Pubs, PDFs or MOBI. To download and read them, users must install Adobe Digital Editions (ADE) on a PC.
E-books have DRM protection on them, which means only the person who purchases and downloads the e-book can access it.
E-books are non-returnable and non-refundable.
E-books are a great tool for researchers and libraries:
Fully searchable
Bookmarked for quick access
No shelving space
Concurrent multiple access


document that is read in digital form.

Electronic data interchange (EDI)

EDI is an electronic communication method that provides standards for exchanging data, using national and international computer systems, via any electronic means. EDI trading messages can be as basic as orders and invoices, but EDI can also develop into a much more sophisticated information exchange, allowing trading partners to manage their whole supply chain more effectively.


EPUB is the distribution and interchange format standard for digital publications and documents based on Web Standards.
EPUB allows publishers to produce and send a single digital publication file through distribution and offers consumers interoperability between software and hardware for unencrypted reflowable digital books and other publications

Evidence-Based Acquisition (EBA)

A demand-driven acquisition (DDA) model in which libraries negotiate with a vendor or publisher to provide access to a pool of e-books, in exchange for an agreement to purchase books valued at a set amount at the end of the program (typically after one year). Libraries can use their own criteria to make purchase selections, but typically base them on use. Also known as evidence-based selection (EBS) or usage-based collection management (UBCM).


EzProxy is an application proxy distributed by OCLC, and is useful in managing access to electronic resources online (or even simple websites). Its primary function is it to transfer the authentication based on IP recognition to an authentication based on user credentials and user profiles.
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An abbreviation for “forthcoming publications”.

Free discovery

A feature of some demand-driven acquisition (DDA) models that provides free access to an e-book before a trigger occurs. This is typically based on some limited amount of time viewing the book, on examination of a set number of pages, or on accessing certain portions of the book such as the front matter. Also referred to as free browse.

Full Time Equivalent (FTE)

The ratio of the total number of paid hours during a period (part time, full time, contracted) by the number of working hours in that period Mondays through Fridays.
The ratio units are FTE units or equivalent employees working full-time. In other words, one FTE is equivalent to one employee working full-time.
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Gold open access

This option is for authors who wish to make their work openly accessible from the beginning. Gold open access is fully sponsored by someone and provides free open access to articles. Therefore, there are no sales in this model.

Green open access

Self-archiving, also known as green open access, refers to the practice of depositing articles in an institutional repository or a subject repository such as arXiv.
The reader gets free access once the cost is paid. After cost is paid, it then becomes an open access subscription model (usually after 12 or 24 months of embargo).


In the case of e-books, hosting content means to store the files on a computer and to provide access to them through a platform.
For example, if a publisher is hosting the content, it means that a library will access purchased e-books via the publisher’s platform.
The library itself does not need to worry about storing the files on their computers. However, in some cases libraries might want to do this and they are entitled to do so.

Inspection copy

Sample copy textbooks (also known as exam copies, inspection copies and evaluation copies) are for lecturers looking for set texts or primary reading for their courses. 

International Standard Book Number (ISBN)

An ISBN is a number, not a barcode. One agency per country is designated to assign ISBNs for the publishers and self-publishers located in that country.
The ISBN identifies the title or other book-like product (such as an audio book or e-book) to which it is assigned.
ISBNs are assigned to publishers and self-publishers as follows: 1, 10, 100, 1,000, 10,000 or 100,000 numbers.
Learn more at

International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI)

An ISNI is an ISO certified global standard for the identification of contributors to creative works.
Learn more at 

International Standard Text Code (ISTC)

An ISTC is a new ISO identifier that is used to collocate or link the various manifestations of a textual work.
The ISO standard was developed by TC 46/SC 9 and published in March 2009 as ISO 21047:2009. The authority responsible for implementing the standard is The International ISTC Agency.

IP address & IP range

An IP address, which stands for Internet Protocol address, is a unique identifying number assigned to every single machine that uses the Internet. Computers, printers, and other devices that contain a network adapter have IP addresses. It is expressed in dotted decimal number format to make it easier for human beings to take note and remember. A typical IP address looks like this: (Learn more at

If a library has 10 computers, each will have an individual IP address. Usually this is picked from an ‘IP Range’, a range of numbers that identify a library’s network. It might look similar to this: from to
This information will be required to activate access to WSPC’s platform, allowing us to recognize the library’s computers. When collecting orders from a library, or if you wish to set up a trial period, it is important to obtain this information from the customer. Librarians are used to this terminology, as it is the same for e-journals, so do not worry about having to explain anything to them!

Knowledge Base and Related Tools (KBART)

KBART was a joint initiative between UKSG and NISO that explored data problems within the OpenURL supply chain. Knowledge bases are key to the process of OpenURL linking because they not only know where content is, but they also know which versions of specific objects a particular institution’s users are entitled to access. Knowledge bases are the only means by which users can be sure to reach an “appropriate copy.” KBART files are delivered from content providers to knowledge base providers, such as EBSCO. For more background, see

Machine-readable cataloging (MARC)

A record that defines a bibliographic data format enabling computers to exchange, use and read bibliographic information. This is the standard for most libraries.
There are several variants of MARC records used in different countries; however, most libraries are able to “translate” from one type to another.
MARC 21 is the most common.

Maintenance fee

A fixed annual administration fee that is charged for use of a platform. This fee is not applicable to publishers we represent.

Manufactured on Demand MOD Print on demand POD

MOD and POD are printing technologies and business processes in which copies of a book (or other document) are not printed until an order has been received, allowing books to be printed singly, or in small quantities. The entire process usually takes 2-6 weeks.


Metadata is data that provides information about other data.
The preferred electronic method for communicating structured product metadata between trading partners in the book industry (e.g. title, author, ISBN, price, availability, reviews, territorial rights) is ONIX for Books.

Multi-user perpetual option (MUPO)

A purchase model where a pre-determined number of users may access a single e-book at the same time. The number of concurrent users is often three. The Wiley pricing for three MUPO is 1.5× DLP.


The number applied to the purchase price of a book; usually used in negotiation with consortia to determine how much the consortia will pay for shared access. For example, a consortium using a multiplier of five would pay five times the list price for the book. The multiplier is negotiated between the consortium and the publisher via the aggregator

Non-linear lending (NLL)

A purchase model. This model was initially developed by EBL. It is basically a “credit” system – the purchase of a single book gives the library usage “credits” to be used in a 12 month period and each time a book is used, a credit is deducted from the account. If all of the credits are used before the end of the 12 months, the library must either buy a second copy or loses access for the remainder of the 12 months. At the beginning of the next cycle, the credits are re-set and any usage deducts a credit from the account. The number of credits that Wiley allows in an NLL model is 200 and the pricing for an NLL title is 1.5× DLP.

Obook (Wiley Online Book)

An obook is an online version of a print book that is only available for licensing at an institutional level. The online content is provided in chapter format, and each chapter can be downloaded as a single PDF. This provides users the convenience, accessibility and enhanced functionality of electronic access. To learn more, please visit Wiley Online Books.

ONIX (ONline Information eXchange)

What is ONIX?

ONIX stands for ONline Information eXchange.
ONIX is an XML-based standard created by a consortium of publishers, wholesalers, retailers, and data aggregators, originally brought together by the Association of American Publishers (AAP).
The ONIX format was created in response to the industry’s need to be able to communicate better information about titles.
ONIX is the preferred form of electronic bibliographic transmission for Amazon, Barnes & Noble, Baker & Taylor, Bowker, Ingram, The Library of Congress, and many other interested data recipients.
ONIX’s XML structure is very well suited to handle the variable amounts of information that can be conveyed for each product. The format can house rich descriptive information such as book descriptions, author biographies, catalog copy, and even excerpts.
ONIX is a tool that helps publishers communicate their product messages effectively.
The ONIX standard is managed internationally by EDItEUR, a non-profit standards organization based in the United Kingdom, with assistance from the Book Industry Study Group’s Metadata Committee in the U.S.
ONIX has gone through several versions since its inception in 1998. The latest version is 3.0.

ONIX for Books

ONIX for Books is an XML format for sharing bibliographic data pertaining to both traditional books and e-books.

Patron-driven acquisition (PDA)

PDA is a purchase model commonly used synonymously with demand-driven acquisition (DDA), but also can be used more broadly to refer to acquisition of library materials based on direct or indirect patron input, including faculty requests and analysis of collection usage. In its common usage, referred to throughout this document as demand-driven acquisition (DDA).


Regarding e-books, a platform is where a user can access purchased titles. If the hosting is done by a publisher, the librarian will be able to use its platform to access titles.

Point-of-purchase record

A machine-readable cataloging (MARC) record loaded by a library after purchase of a title via a demand-driven acquisition (DDA) program; intended to be used permanently. It will usually have more bibliographic data than a discovery record (see above).


Portico is a digital preservation service provided by ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization with a mission to help the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways.
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Post-purchase use

Any usage of a book that occurs after an auto-purchase. Compare to pre-purchase use.

Pre-purchase use

Any usage of a book that occurs before an auto-purchase. Compare to post-purchase use.

Pro forma

A pro forma invoice is a document that states a commitment from the seller to sell goods to the buyer at specified prices and terms. It is used to declare the value of the trade. It is not a true invoice, because it is not used to record accounts receivable for the seller and accounts payable for the buyer.

Proof of delivery (POD)

POD is a method to establish the fact that the recipient received the contents sent by the sender.

Proxy server

If a librarian asks you if students can access the e-book collection from their private laptops, you can answer that this is possible as long as the library is provided with a proxy server or similar resources.
A proxy server provides off-campus access to electronic resources licensed by the library and available through its website and catalogues.


PubEasy® represents the new standard in e-commerce for the global bookselling industry. PubEasy® is a business-to-business service that uses the Internet to facilitate and speed business between booksellers, publishers, distributors, and wholesalers.
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SAP HANA is an in-memory, column-oriented, relational database management system (DBMS) and is used to store and retrieve data for application. Essentially, it is a "very fast" database that is useful in developing data analyses applications


Shibboleth is a web-based technology used to implement single sign-on systems (SSO). Its purpose is to provide an architecture and an open-source implementation to support identity management and federated identity-based authentication and authorization.
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Someone who sends goods for shipment, by packaging, labeling, and arranging for transit, or who coordinates the transport of goods

Short-Term Loan (STL)

A lease of an e-book for a brief period (generally one day, one week, or one month) within a  demand-driven acquisition (DDA) program.

Single user perpetual option (SUPO)

A purchase model where access to an e-book is restricted to one person at any one time. A second person can only access the book when the first person’s session has expired.

Statement of account

A detailed report of the contents of an account. An example is a statement sent to a customer, showing billings to and payments from the customer during a specific time period, resulting in an ending balance.


The subscription is a business model where a customer must pay a subscription price to have access to the product or service


Thema is a global broad subject category scheme, based on hierarchical code structures, for use in the book trade, whether physical or digital, online or in stores. It is a general purpose scheme and is not intended to replace specialist or library schemes but is designed to replace national general purpose book trade schemes over time. In the medium term, the benefit is that users need only map between their own scheme and Thema, rather than to and from numerous other schemes (e.g. BIC and BISAC) used by trading partners.
Thema is managed by EDItEUR through a number of national interest groups and an International Steering Committee, in a similar manner to ONIX for Books.
To learn more about Thema and to access the latest version, 1.1 released 30 November 2014, click here.


Any event within a demand-driven acquisition (DDA) program that causes a financial transaction (such as a short-term loan or auto-purchase) to occur. Each aggregator sets its own trigger activities. A library sets the trigger values.

Un-owned title

A book within the consideration pool that has not yet had enough usage to trigger a purchase.

Unlimited concurrent user

A purchase model where there is no restriction to the number of users who may access an e-book at any one time.

Update file

A set of discovery records generated to match the titles available in a library’s consideration pool, and used to replace all existing records for those titles.

Usage-based collection management (UBCM)

Wiley’s version of evidence-based acquisition (EBA) (see above) that allows a library to open access to our full catalog of obooks in the Wiley Online Library and to then make purchasing decisions informed by the evidence of usage.

Web-scale discovery (WSD)

A preharvested central index coupled with a richly featured discovery layer providing a single search across a library’s local, open access, and subscription collections. See also Discovery layer

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